Hays, (2013) discusses cognitive assessment in two separate chapters. Chapter nine provides a review of intelligence tests. Chapter nine discusses academic and assessment testing in education. Testing methods and differences in these concepts are reviewed below:
Our textbook introduces several theories of intelligence that are helpful in providing a clear description of this concept. In general, intelligence can be thought of as an ability to “act purposefully, think rationally…. and adapt to one’s environment” (Hays, 2013, p168). While master’s level therapists don’t perform the assessments of intelligence, they use this information to assist in “educational and vocational decision making” (Hays, 2013, p180). Knowledge of intelligence testing instruments is important for this reason. Well-known individual intelligence tests include the Stanford Binet test and Weschler scales (Hays, 2013). Group intelligence testing, giftedness, and creativity tests are also reviewed in this chapter.
Chapter ten provides a review of aptitude and academic assessments often utilized in the educational system (Hays, 2013). Counselors need to be familiar with these assessments since they often assist clients with their educational plans. Whereas aptitude tests reflect a student’s ability to learn, assessment tests measure what they have learned (Hays, 2013). Examples of aptitude tests include the SAT, ACT, and GRE. These tests are often utilized for college admission purposes. An example of assessment tests includes the TerraNova test. This test is locally throughout the Bellevue School System and provides a review of a student’s academic progress. Results are provided to parents periodically over the course of a year and are compared to state scores. High Stakes Testing is utilized to evaluate educational curriculum and instruction (Hays, 2013). Utilized on behalf of the “No Child Left Behind Act,”, this information monitors student performance and holds schools to an educational standard (Hays, 2013). This chapter concludes with a review of study habits tests that are helpful in allowing students to improve their performance (Hays, 2013).
Hays, D. (2013). Assessment in Counseling (5th ed.). Alexandria, VA: American Counseling Association.