Based on the work of John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, Attachment Theory states that early experiences with primary caretakers during infancy provide a “working model [of oneself] and others” (Broderick & Blewitt, 2006). It is also worth noting that the concept of attachment, as described here does not pertain to a specific set of observable behaviors. Instead attachment is a system of beliefs that sure the purpose of an emotional bond known as “proximity maintenance…[in addition to a] safe haven…[and]…secure base” (Broderick & Blewitt, 2006, p125) with which to interact with one’s world Instead have profound effects throughout one’s lifetime. It is for this reason, an individual’s early attachment experiences have profound affects that last a lifetime. It is in the early social interactions with primary caregivers during infancy that we first learn trust others and develops a capacity for emotional regulation.
"Is this someone who needs an immediate, active intervention in order to prevent harm in the client or to others, or can I safely conduct my usual intake and therapy procedures. There are two errors that must be avoided: (1) failing to prevent serious consequences, including death, destructive actions, and long term pathology by not promptly responding in crisis mode and, (2) pathologizing a condition that, while painful and debilitating, is best understood as a normal, expectable response to the stressors, transitions, and traumas of daily life (Ingram, 2012, p. 117)"
ccording to Sharf (2006), descriptive theories explain our career decisions while prescriptive theories state there is an ideal approach to making these decisions. Examples of descriptive theories include Miller-Tiedeman’s Lifecareer theory and Hansen’s Holistic Approach (Sharf, 2006). Described as a spiritual approach to career decision-making, these perspectives conceive the ultimate goal is the discovery of “inner meanings found deep within” (Sharf, 2006, p417) oneself.
Sharf, (2006), defines self-efficacy as “people’s judgments of their capabilities to organize and execute courses of action required to attain designated types of performances” (p396). Additionally, our textbook notes that our interests and outcome expectations are influenced by our beliefs of self-efficacy (Sharf, 2006). In other words, our perceptions of, “what is possible”
Super’s Model of career development provides useful insights from a life-span perspective. Many of the insights contained in this theory are based on key figures in developmental psychology including Piaget and Erickson (Sharf, 2012). For example, according to Super’s theory adolescent career development at first arises from curiosity and fantasy play (Sharf, 2012). Additionally, an adolescent’s progression toward career development is moved forward by an increased capacity for abstract thinking and drive towards identity development (Sharf, 2012).
This paper reviews two separate assessments. The first utilizes the results of the Strong Interest Inventory, based on Holland’s six types of personalities as it pertains to career choice (Sharf, 2006). The second assessment focuses on utilizes “The SSI Method of Assessment” (Author, 2015). This methods requires an individual to a self-examination from three perspectives: (1) personal strengths, (2) areas of improvement, and (3) insight and self-understanding (Author, 2015).
Parsons believed that vocational guidance involved a series of steps that begins with self-understanding and obtaining information on potential career options (Sharf, 2006). By correlating individual traits with factors related to success in a potential occupation, an individual is able to make an informed career decision.